Visual Representations

According to Marzano, Gaddy, and Dean, 2000, visual organizers make information memorable by presenting it in both linguistic and non- linguistic modes. In other words, information is both visually structured according to the pattern of the organizer and consciously condensed into words for deep comprehension and easier memorization.
The process of generating non-linguistic representations engages students in elaborative thinking. When a student generates a non- linguistic representation of knowledge, by definition, he/she has elaborated on it. The power of elaboration can be enhanced by asking students to explain and justify their elaborations… Actually, graphic organizers combine linguistic mode in that they use words and phrases and the non- linguistic mode in that they use symbols and arrows to represent relationships. (Marzano, JR Anderson 1990.)
The document below contains the various text structures and correlating thinking maps. Associated paragraph frames have also been included within the document.

How do Writing Frameworks support student learning?
Writing Frameworks support, enhance, and scaffold students' learning. Frameworks alleviate anxiety for students that struggle within writing, especially for those that have a difficult time putting writing down onto paper (getting started).



Constructive Response Technique

Summarizing Strategy for Informational Text

Student sample utilizing the summarizing strategy (modified K.bum strategy)
(under construction)

R.A.F.T. Writing Strategy
A strategy utilized to help students write about content. This strategy is unlike the traditional essay format, in that students shift towards writing for different audiences while infusing voice and imagination within their work. In addition, this strategy allows students to consider who they are as writers, for whom they are writing, the most appropriate format for the piece and the tone they want to take with the expected content.
RAFT gives students:
  • more control over their writing assignments
  • flexibility to define their own role, format, and audience when explaining a specific topic
  • freedom to write from another viewpoint other than their own & write to an audience (other than the standard essay)